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All you need to know about Diabetes All you need to know about Diabetes


Diabetes occurs when the body cannot control sugar/glucose in the blood. Glucose is obtained from the food we eat, which is used by the body to produce energy. The body maintains a normal level of glucose in the blood but people with Diabetes have high levels of blood sugar in their body.

Diabetes is caused if the body does not produce enough insulin or any insulin at all. Pancreas are responsible for producing the insulin. Insulin plays an important role in regulating the blood glucose in the body. The role of insulin is to move the glucose that is present in the bloodstream to the muscle, fat and liver cells to provide them with energy. If the body does not produce sufficient amount of insulin, the glucose tends to stay in the blood. This condition depletes the cells from energy, which in turn harms the associated tissues and organs.

The ideal range of fasting (F) blood glucose level should be between 70 mg/dL - 110 mg/dL. However, this level increases after food. So, the ideal range of postprandial (PP) blood glucose level should be between 110 mg/dL - 140 mg/dL.

What are the risk factors associated with Diabetes?

Certain factors increase the possibility of someone developing diabetes. People who satisfy one or more of these factors are at higher risk of developing diabetes. The risk factors include:

  • Heredity: In most of the cases, the cause of diabetes is genetic. It has been found that around 80% of the people who are diagnosed with diabetes have at least one family member with this disease. Hence, a person with a family history of diabetes stands a high chance for diabetes.
  • Age:  The chance of diabetes is also high with advance in age, especially after 45 years.
  • Pre-diabetes: Pre-diabetes refers to a condition in which the blood sugar level of a person is quite higher than the normal level, but not high enough to cause diabetes. But, if left untreated, the person poses a high risk for developing diabetes.
  • Obesity: People who are obese or overweight are also prone to diabetes. Being obese causes the tissues to get surrounded by fat, which causes the cells to become resistant to insulin. Over 80% of people with type II diabetes are overweight.
  • Cholesterol: Cholesterol is a waxy substance in the blood used for building cell membranes and tissues. Again, unhealthy level of cholesterol in the blood can make the cells resist to insulin. Basically cholesterol consists of the following three components: Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) or bad cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) or good cholesterol and Triglycerides. The advised level of cholesterol for men and women is shown in the table below.
  Men Women
LDL Less than 100 mg/dL Less than 100 mg/dL
HDL Above 45 mg/dL Above 55 mg/dL
Triglycerides Less than 150 mg/dL Less than 150 mg/dL
  • Stress - Stress can alter the blood glucose levels. For most of the people, the stress hormones raise the blood glucose levels. High glucose levels directly increase the risk of developing diabetes
  • Malnutrition Related Diabetes - Improper nutrition, low protein and fibre intake can also cause diabetes.
  • Gender - Women with multiple pregnancies or suffering from (PCOS) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome are more prone to diabetes.
  • Hypertension - Many studies suggest that a direct relation between high systolic pressure and diabetes

Diabetes can be classified into the following categories depending upon the factor that caused diabetes:


What is Type I Diabetes?

In Type I diabetes, the body produces either very little or no insulin. This condition generally occurs if the beta cells of the pancreas, which produces insulin, are damaged or removed.

Usually, the Type I diabetes is first diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. Patients suffering from this type of diabetes take regular dose of insulin injections to compensate for the insulin that cannot be produced by their body.

What is Type II Diabetes?

Type II diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, affecting around 90% of the diabetics. It is usually diagnosed in the adulthood.

In type II diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin but the body will not be able to utilize it, which is referred to as insulin resistance.

Most often, the cause of this type of diabetes is hereditary. However, there are also other certain other factors that can be responsible for this such as, old age, obesity, high intake of cholesterol, physical inactivity, and high blood pressure.

The Type II diabetes can be kept in control by proper diet, exercises, weight reduction and medication. In some cases, insulin injections may also be required.

Diabetes in Pregnancy - Gestational Diabetes

The form of diabetes that occurs only in pregnant women is called Gestational diabetes. It can even occur on a pregnant woman who never had diabetes. Generally, it develops during the second half cycle of the pregnancy and disappears after the delivery.

However, their babies are likely to be obese or diabetic later. The cause of this type of diabetes could be hereditary again, obesity, or pregnancy in older age. It can be treated by proper diet and self care. Women who develop Gestational diabetes also have a chance of developing the Type II diabetes later.

Diabetes in Children - Juvenile Diabetes

Juvenile diabetes is usually triggered by viral reaction or environmental factors. The body becomes highly autoimmune against the beta cells, which causes the immune system of the body to destroy these cells. Destruction of the beta cells causes the pancreas to stop producing insulin. The cause of this type of diabetes is mainly hereditary. Although there is no cure for this, it can be kept in control by insulin injections, proper diet and exercise.

For more information on diet, nutrition, health, diabetes diet plan, weight loss or fitness contact DesiDieter Health and Diet Experts.

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