He has been found to have diabetes for the past one year only. Also he is a known hypertension patient and taking medicines for that regularly. His Lipid profile is Normal. His PP Blood sugar is only 185 mgs%. He is confused what kind of diet to take. Any suggestions from dieticians?
To maintain adequate nutrition
To achieve and maintain desirable body weight
To maintain normal blood sugar levels
To prevent, delay or minimize the onset of chronic degenerative complications
Diet plays an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The diet may be used alone or in combination with insulin injections or oral hypoglycaemic drugs.
The diet plan of an individual is based on height, weight, age, sex, physical activity and nature of diabetes. One should consider the following points while planning a diabetic diet:
Determining energy requirements
Determining the type of carbohydrates, fibre and food preparations
Presence of any other complication such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels etc.
In case of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, the energy intake is based on needs for normal growth and development, physical activity and maintenance of desirable body weight.
In case of non insulin dependant diabetes mellitus, the majority of patients are overweight or obese. Therefore, calorie restriction is required to achieve a desired weight.
Type of carbohydrate and amount of fibre: More of carbohydrate must be given as complex starches rather than simple sugars as they breakdown more slowly to release glucose in blood. The presence of fibre in complex carbohydrate like grains, vegetables and other starches slows the glucose absorption. One should emphasise more on the high fibre foods instead of high fibre supplements available in the market.
Food groups High fibre foods Low fibre foods
Cereals Whole cereals like whole wheat, dalia, whole wheat flour Refined cereals like rice, bread, maida, suji, noodles, macaroni, etc
Milk and milk products - Milk and milk products
Pulses Whole dals and dals with husk Washed dals
Meat, fish and poultry - Eggs, chicken, fish
Vegetables Vegetables like peas, beans, lotus stem etc. Vegetables like potato, lauki etc.
Fruits Fruits like apple, cherries, pears, peaches, plums, guava etc. Fruit juices and fruits like banana and papaya
Fats - Fats
Sample diet plan (for NIDDM)
Early morning Tea (preferably without sugar)
Breakfast Dalia (salted)/ Paneer on toast
Tea without sugar
Lunch 2 chapatti
Channa curry / or any other whole dal
Beans sabzi / or any other sabzi (avoid potatoes)
Curds / ghia raita
Dinner Vegetable soup / tomato soup / chicken soup
2 chapatti / missi roti (combining wheat flour with channa flour and soya flour)
Palak paneer sabzi / paneer bhurji
Sample diet plan (for IDDM)
Early morning Tea (without sugar)
Breakfast Corn flakes
Mid-morning Fruit chat
Lunch 2 chapatti (add extra chapatti if required)
Lobia curry / or any other whole dal
Capsicum sabzi / karela / or any other sabzi
Curds / raita
Tea Tea / milk
Dinner 2 chapatti
Cabbage sabzi / or any other sabzi
Bed time Kheer / fruit custard
It is important to control the amount and time of food intake.
Meals should not be missed.
Consider the likes and dislikes of the patient.
Try to substitute the craving for sweet by taking some fruit.
Foods to be avoided
Glucose, sugar, honey, all sweets, chocolates and candies.
Foods to be restricted
Potatoes, yam, arbi, sweet potatoes, mangoes, grapes, bananas, alcoholic beverages, fried foods, paranthas, poories, pakoras, mathris, deep fried foods, dry fruits, salad oils, cakes and pastries.
Foods to be used freely
Green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, cucumber. radish, soups, buttermilk, tea and coffee without sugar.
What is the healthy South Indian diet to cure insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes?
The Indian Council of Medical Research suggests a daily intake of 25 to 35 grams of fiber. Fiber helps to naturally reduce glucose levels. In the Indian diet, high fiber foods include things like bran, whole grains, cereal, fresh fruit, dried fruit, raw vegetables, red beans, bean sprouts, mullet preparations, cluster beans, drumstick stems, lotus stems, curry leaves, pomegranate, green chilies, coriander, and cardomon seeds.Introduction to high fiber foods should be done slowly and progressively; increase the amount of fiber by five grams a day until you meet the 35 grams per day limit. Doing so will help you to avoid the feeling of a distended abdomen and problems with flatulence or bowel regularity.
The diabetic should consume 65 to 75 percent of daily calories in complex carbohydrates. This will ensure that blood sugar levels remain regulated. Complex carbohydrate consumption helps minimize blood cholesterol triglycerides and also improves digestive processes. Food sources for the diabetic include legumes, rice and whole wheat bread.
25 percent of daily calories come from protein. Food sources include soy beans, cheese, chicken, egg whites, fish and leafy green vegetables. A diet that is excessive in protein can have harmful effects on the liver and kidneys, forcing them to work harder.
Channa dal is a legume that us a common part of the Indian diet; these legumes are revered for their anti-diabetic properties. Channa is fiber-rich and lower blood sugar levels naturally. It also reduces fasting blood sugar levels by thwarting the passage of sugars into the urine; this reduces one's insulin requirements.
The Indian diet for type 2 diabetes also recommends lowering cholesterol intake. High levels of cholesterol contribute to cardiovascular disease; no more than 300 milligrams of cholesterol should be eaten daily.Baking, steaming, roasting or grilling foods reduce cholesterol levels,rather than frying them. Consume low-fat or skim milk products instead of whole-milk varieties.
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